E.A. Mallory (1785-1902) - An amazingly long-lived New England
Matrix - The stone in which a fossil is imbedded.
The Meiji restoration - Early in 1868, Keiki, the last shogun
or military ruler of Japan, was forced to resign his post, and the Meiji emperor, backed by the conservative daimyos of Satsuma
and Choshu, assumed control, restoring to Japan a sense of national
unity. The country was at that time torn apart by political violence,
widespread unemployment, food riots, and fear of the well-armed
foreigners who had insisted on entry to Japan. In the course of
the Meiji emperor's 44-year reign, the country abolished feudalism,
adopted Western technology, education, and legal reforms, and
took its place as a world power.
Meiji technological advances depicted in Japanese postage stamps
Meirokusha - "Meiji 6 Society." An intellectual society
proposed by statesman Mori Arinori in 1873 (the sixth year of
the Meiji era) for the purpose of Civilization and Enlightenment.
It played a leading role in introducing and popularizing Western
ideas during early Meiji. It numbered among its thirty-three members
some of the most prominent educators, bureaucrats, and thinkers
of 19th century Japan, most of whom had studied both jugaku (Confucian
studies) and yogaku (Western learning). As Japan's first envoy
to the United States (1871-1873), Mori was impressed by the activities
of American educational societies and by Horace Mann's views on
universal education. It is probable that he conceived the idea
of Meirokusha while in the United States. Its purpose: to promote
Western learning and establish models of ethical behavior in Japan.
Its means to that end took three different forms: to study and
emulate the West's moral strength; to institute social welfare
programs, constitutional government, and universal education;
to pragmatically combine the special strengths of the Japanese
with Western attitudes and institutions. Although it continued
to meet up to around 1900, the society's influence sharply declined
after it ceased publishing its journal due to the passing of the
Press Ordinance and the Libel Law in 1875.
Mikado - An ancient name for the Emperor of Japan, widely used
in the West in the 19th Century and popularized by Gilbert and
Sullivan in their operetta "The Mikado," but not used
in Japan, where the emperor was and is customarily referred to
as Tenno, "Son of Heaven."
Viscount Mori Arinori (1847-1889) - Prominent educational statesman,
diplomat, and outspoken proponent of Western thought and social
practices in early Meiji. From a samurai family in the Satsuma
domain, he was secretly dispatched by the domain under the alias
of Sawai Tetsuma to Britain in 1865, where he studied naval surveying,
mathematics, and physics for two years. Crossing to America in
1867 at the invitation of his close British mentor, Laurence Oliphant,
he spent a year with the Brotherhood of the New Life, a spartan
utopian colony at Brocton, New York. He returned to Japan in 1868.
He was forced to resign from his government post in 1869 after
prematurely proposing the abolition of sword-wearing. The most
famous of the Meiji education minsters, he was an advocate of
religious freedom and secular education, favoring abandonment
of the Japanese language in favor of English and the social (but
not political) emancipation of women. He also had a life-long
career in the Foreign Office and was Japan's first envoy to Washington
(1871-1873). In 1875, he founded Hitotsubashi University. He was
assassinated by a Shintoist fanatic in 1889, on the very day the
Meiji constitution went into effect.
Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn St. - One of the earliest
of the great National Museums, demolished in 1936.
Music-making machines - The 19th century saw a Cambrian proliferation
of musical snuff-boxes, mechanical music-players, and automata
orchestras, even a musical bustle, reportedly presented to Queen
Victoria. (It played 'God Save the Queen' when the wearer sat
down.) The early part of the century brought the Panharmonicon,
a mechanical orchestra. It was followed by the Appolonicon and
the Euterpion, which were elaborate barrel organs, and another
set of automata, the Orchestrion, which astonished the British
public at the exhibition of 1851. Most of these were controlled
through the use of a revolving barrel with pins or pneumatic devices
employing perforated cards or rolls of paper. The music was produced
from organ pipes, reeds, metallic combs, drums, bells, cymbals,
triangles, and strings struck with a hammer. Appliances to automate
the pianoforte also were common from the close of the 18th century,
early ones utilizing a barrel-and-pin mechanism. Perforated pieces
of cardboard or rolls of paper, storing the music in the same
way weaving instructions are stored for a Jacquard loom, were
introduced in the first half of the 19th century. The Pianola,
patented by an American in 1897, played music stored on rolls
of punched paper.
The Difference Dictionary was first published
in slightly different form in Science Fiction Eye, Issue #8.
Text copyright 1990, 1996, 2000, 2003,
by Eileen K. Gunn.